Role of Artificial Intelligence for a Nation
Defining Artificial Intelligence from socio-political perspective
Artificial Intelligence can be defined as the ability of a machine to achieve goals, especially in a complex, uncertain environment. Machine has the ability to perform cognitive tasks like thinking, perceiving learning, problem-solving and decision making (NITI Discussion Paper). It is a wide-open field that can be used in any area from Robots to self-driving cars. In 1956, John McCarthy proposed hosting a two-month workshop around the newly created idea called artificial intelligence. The meeting, now famous, encouraged research that led first to automated and then to expert systems in the 1970s and 1980s respectively — the former involved simple machine automation of mathematical and statistical questions, including the solving of logical proofs. Expert systems were designed to solve these limitations by programming in expert knowledge from a given field. However, this expert system was not relevant as all of the programming, training and implementation had to be repeated every time the expert knowledge changed. The important breakthrough came in AI with a period of research into ‘deep learning’ which models higher level processing by abstracting smaller modules together[i]. With incredible advancement in data collection, processing and computation power, intelligent system can do a variety of tasks and enhance productivity. Expansion in AI’s capabilities has expanded its utility in different fields.
AI can be distinguished in two broad categories; Modular and General. Modular AI has narrow expertise in a particular context and is able to learn through practice to improve their performance. A general AI can use its knowledge much more flexible, to tackle a far broader array of more abstract and unbounded problems, including those that require an understanding of meanings and values. Both categories are capable of ‘learning’ about the task engage in, and improving their performance over time[ii]. Machine learning systems that engage in ‘deep learning’ are biologically-inspired, albeit with a far narrower and less flexible ‘expertise’. Their ‘neural’ architecture is also designed with nested, hierarchical pattern recognisers that can adapt to new environments, learning new skills and tactics.
Artificial Intelligence is becoming a new wave in global politics, and it is going to play a pivotal role in power dynamics among nations. Many countries are investing massively in the advancement of this technology, and it has become an important aspect of economic, defense and foreign policy. The quest of supremacy in AI between China and the United States is a major concern for other countries including India. This paper attempts to analyse the ascendance of AI in global politics and how it is bringing many opportunities and challenges to the Indian economy and security. Despite having advancement in AI in private sector, India is still lagging behind in proper government policy that could hinder innovation, investment and research in this domain
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a revolution in the world. With the breakthrough of Machine Learning that engages in ‘deep learning’ and advancement of computer system have made AI more advanced and accessible. The usage of AI is not limited to Information Technology (IT); it has gone beyond IT and expanded to health, education, defense, art and social sector.
Artificial Intelligence can be a game-changer for nation-building process. We can achieve our goal of socioeconomic change that empowers everyone to lead life to the fullest possible. NITI Ayog is also trying to use AI for creating insightful policy making processes but there is a long way to go. Here I am sharing where we can improve the system
Based on past trends and records of any system( healthcare ,education, police etc.), we can develop data driven intelligence to make the system more efficient, automated, transparent and fast than ever. Dubai, Amsterdam and other cities are working on it to improve the lives of people. They invest billion of dollars for each project. Is India doing enough? Most Probably, no. If AI can give the scope of much better lives for people, saving the wastages and making the governance faster and efficient, why do we lag behind others. We have the best talents in India but only thing that is missing is how to utilise them for the big purpose.
Many countries such as the United States, China, Israel, Canada, EU member countries and Japan are promoting AI and making it an integral part of their economy, security and defense sector. India is not exceptional. However, it has limited access to different sectors. In India, AI has been mostly used by Industries and corporates (like Amazon, Flipkart, Symphony AI etc.), and expertise of AI is mainly in few hands (mainly technocrats). Recent advances in AI and race of supremacy in AI among global powers are a wakeup call to policymakers in India. After providing the basic information of AI, this paper seeks to explain India’s position in AI. It further argues that policymakers should focus on the positive outcome by using this technology beyond the private sectors. Rather being apprehensive about the negative impact (such as Job cuts) how AI could be useful in helping and enhance the growth of Indian Economy and security.
Hope NITI AAyog is listening.
— Divya Rani (International Relations Expert and AI Enthusiast)
and Navin Manaswi (AI Expert)